Vermiculture (Vermicompost)-organic fertilizer project preparation

Vermiculture-Vermicompost organic fertilizer: 

Vermicomposting turns Agri waste with the help of earthworms into a rich, soil conditioner, which you can use as organic fertilizer for your farm, lawn, and your vegetable garden. 
Widely used for organic farming to increases the growth and yield of various vegetable, fruit, and flower crops. It also improves the soil structure with nutrient and water holding capacities of soil.
Vermiculture-Vermicompost-kechua khad
Vermiculture-Vermicompost-kechua khad
        The excess use of chemical fertilizers leads to loss of physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the agricultural land. The number of useful microorganisms in the soil has decreased due to which the fertility of the land is decreasing. Long term use of chemical fertilizers damages the land soil by changing the pH.
The food grown by chemical fertilizers is containing the traces of some harmful compounds which is unhealthy for consumption for human or livestock

We think that chemical fertilizers are more effective and give quick results than organic fertilizers, but the chemical fertilizers are more costly and hazardous for soil. Organic fertilizers like vermicompost take some more time for results but the overall economics of the organic fertilizers are more beneficial than chemical fertilizers.

Types of Earthworms in Vermicompost Production:-

vermicomposting worms
Vermicompost earthworms

On the Earth, there are near about 3300 species of earthworms. The surface feeder species called “Epigeics” such as Eisenia foetida, Eudrilus eugeniae’ and Perionyx excavatus’ is mostly used in the production of vermicompost organic fertilizer. 

What is vermicomposting?

Earthworm eats organic foods. After eating it, take the parts required by the body, the remaining part is expelled from the body, it is called vermicompost organic fertilizer or Vermiculture. 
Vermicompost organic fertilizer is an important source of nutrients, hormonal, useful bacteria, which increases the immunity of the plant and fertility of the soil.  

Vermicompost Composition:-

The nutrients available in vermicompost are:
Nitrogen- 1.6.
Phosphorus - 0.7.
Potassium- 0.8.
Calcium- 0.5.
Iron- 1.75.
Manganese- 96.5.
Zinc- 24.5.

Vermicompost Contains

1.     Macro and micronutrients
2.     Vitamins and Enzymes
3.     Hormones like Auxins and Cytokinins
4. Beneficial Soil Microflora likes Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Protozoans, Fungi, and others.

Vermicompost  composition: what to feed worm

Vermiculture is the process of composting with the help of worms and the wastage material. Agricultural waste, straw, grass, cow dung, urine, crush, goats ladders, a mulch of fruit trees and forestry, jute, vegetable residues and earthworms are the main ingredients of vermicompost.
Vermicompost Bag

Vermicompost  Preparation: 

The step by step procedure of Vermicompost preparation is:- 
1.     Prepare a shed to protect cement pits from sunshine and rain. 
2.     The cement pits are 3 ×2 meters and 60-70 cm in depth. These cement pits will be used for long periods, but nowadays plastic bags also available for that. 
3.    Pit bottom is covered with agricultural waste, straw grass, a mulch of fruit trees and forestry, jute, rice husk,  coconut husk, wheat bran up to 3 to 5 cm of cement pit.
4.     Above that take a layer of cow dung, goats ladders, vegetable residues, and soil both the layers are completely moistened by water.  Spray water in between regular time intervals which maintain its moisture and temperature also.
5.     For 50 kg vermicompost use 3000-3500 Earthworm will be suggested.
6.  Above that put another layer of 50 cm of partially decomposed organic matter. 
7.  For the development of earthworms, it is necessary to maintain the air in organic pits so it must be porous in nature. 
8.     Cover that material with waste cloths and maintain its moisture by spraying water on it.
9. The excess water in the Vermicompost bed is collected which is called varmiwash.
10. After the color of fertilizer becomes dark brown, then it is considered as vermicompost organic fertilizer. After the fertilizer is ready for harvesting, stop watering.
11.  After 40-45 days make cones of that vermicompost and

12. Chop the upper part and filter it, after that An earthworm is separated, and used to make another vermicompost. 
Vermicompost the organic fertilizer
Vermicompost the organic fertilizer
Prevent pests in Vermicomposting:-

Actually, there are no diseases but some predators affect vermicompost production. Termites, ants, rats, birds, and centipedes are some of them and prevented by 5% neem-based insecticide before filling the pit. To avoid pests don’t use meat, kitchen waste, and dairy product. 

Problem-1 The foul odor of vermicompost.
Causes:-  Too much air, Not enough air, or Too much organic matter         
Solution:-  Make sure that holes are not so smaller or bigger, and adjust organic matter per feeding
Problem-2 Dying worms in vermicompost.                                                               
Causes:- Too wet or dry, no food
Solution:-  adjust the water quantity as per requirement and add the required amount of food to earthworms.
Problem-3 No bedding for worms
Causes:-  Low or high temperature, the quantity of earthworm.
Solution:-  Adjust the bed temperature, check for harvest of vermicompost and bedding.                                                                                                                                      
Problem -4 Flies developed in vermicompost.
Causes:-   Air holes are big and bed content  bury organic matter

Solution:-  Make smaller air holes or remove bury the organic matter.

Advantages of Vermicomposting

1. Earthworm bring up minerals from deep in the soil which is in short supply at surface layers
2. The soil fertility is enhanced. The main and micronutrients available for the growth of the crop are available in their natural forms.  
3. This reduces the cost of pesticides. The microorganisms in earthworms such as Acetobacter bacteria, streptomycin, siderophores, actinomycetes and fungi destroy the microbial plants and destroy the pathogenic pathogens. 
4. Crop growth is much faster.
5. The land becomes more porous, leads to proper drainage of water and increase the groundwater efficiency.
6. Saving of water leads to a reduction in irrigation costs.
7. Most of the agriculture, waste is used in vermicompost. it reduces its production costs and increases profits.

In simple Enables efficient growth, Increases moisture retention, Promotes microbial activity, Controls pest & diseases.

How to Make Vermicompost bin at Home:-

How to make Vermiculture from kitchen waste?

Prepare an Indoor vermicomposting bin as shown in the diagram.
Indoor Vermicompost Bin
Homemade Vermicompost Bin

1) Add 5 to 6 cm of bedding material in the vermicomposting bin and add earthworms to the bed.
2) Put the kitchen waste material bin.
3) Keep bin covered with a layer of newspaper.
4) Spray water in between regular time intervals which maintain its moisture and temperature also.
5) For 5 kg vermicompost use, 300 Earthworm will be suggested.
 Follow the same instruction as stated in the above commercial process.

Varmiwash- Liquid Vermicompost:-

Water is sprinkled to wet the waste or dung while the vermicompost manure is being prepared. While eating this wet waste, some amount of water also goes into the body of the earthworm. This water is released from the body of the earthworm along with the waste. This yellowish water is called as Vermiwash.

Bio-degradation of complex organic residues by the symbiotic association between earthworms and microbes will increase the density of microbes in the cast and also the availability of vital macronutrients viz., N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients such as Fe, Mo, Zn, Cu, etc., in the soil. Apart from this, the soil also contains plant growth-promoting substances like NAA, cytokinins, gibberellins, etc. 
Vermicompost contains required nutrients, which can be applied alone so as to get better yield and quality of diverse crops

Project report of Vermicompost-organic fertilizer

Tentative economical aspects of Vermicompost-organic fertilizer using earthworm are as follows.
1.Cost of vermicompost Bed making:
Size of vermicompost bad - 3m. X 1 m x 1 m
Total number of vermicompost bed - 30
Net area of vermicompost bed - 100 sqm
Making vermicompost bed -     600. Per Sqm (600 X 100)                Rs. 60000
2. The cost of building shed - 500 sqm
Shad cost-      200 per square meter  (200 X 500)                                 Rs 100000
Total Fixed cost                                                                                                Rs 160000
3. Earthworm purchase costs
The total earthworms purchased - 90 kg
Purchase Rate -  150 per kilogram  (90 X 150)                                       Rs13500
4. Cost of transportation of earthworms                                             Rs1000
5. Required machine and equipment
scales –                                                          Rs 1500
Bag closure –                                               Rs 12000
Shabel –                                                        Rs 1500
Sieve –                                                           Rs 8000
Breeder Boxes - 50 (Rs. 500 per box)  Rs 25000
Cutter Machine –                                         Rs 16000
The machine and equipment cost                                                              Rs. 64000
6. The raw material cost,
The total quantity of waste required - 700 quintal
Quintal purchase rate - 60 per quintal (700 X 40)                                     Rs. 42000
7. Cost of filling raw material in Vermi bad
Number of regular laborers - 1
Wages per month -      5000 (5000 X 12)                                                      Rs. 60000
A total number of daily wages laborers - 4
wages -  250 per day. (4 X250)                                                                         Rs 1000
8. Expenses for manuring bags
Number of sacks - 1250
per bag purchase price - (1250 X 12)                                                              Rs. 15000
Quantity of compost per bag - 40 kg
Number of bags - 1250
 Filling manure in bags - 2 Per Bag (1250 X 2)                                             Rs. 2500
 The cost of sewing the bags is 50 paise per bag (1250 X 0.50)              Rs  625.
Transportation of finished goods, 25 per quintals (500 X 25)                Rs. 12500
Marketing charges (varies accordingly)                                                         Rs. 20000
Electricity, office and other charges                                                                Rs 10875
Total expenditure =                                                                                            Rs. 243000

Income from the sale of Vermicompost

Quantity of compost prepared in a year - 504 quintals
Quantity of manure to be filled in bags - 500 quintals
The total amount of fertilizer sold - 500 quintals
Each bag content 40 kg
Total number of bags sold - 1250
 Sale Rate - 250 per bag (1250 X 250)                                                              Rs.312500
Income from the sale of earthworms
 Total earthworms produced - 4000 kg
The total amount of earthworms available for sale - 2000 kg per year
Earthworm sales rate - 50 Per Kilogram (2000 X 150)                              Rs. 300000
Total Income from the sale                                                                                 Rs. 612500
Total project cost is near about 4 Lacks,
10% self-investment, and a loan of Rs. 360000
Interest paid to bank (at the rate of 10%)                                                     Rs. 36000
Depreciation 20% on initial investment                                                        Rs. 20000
Total expenditure  243000+36000+20000= Rs. 299000

Net income in the first year: - 612500 - 299000 = 313500 Rs.

Vermicompost Price

The production cost of Vermicompost Fertilizer is about Rs 1.5 to 4 per kg and sold at 10-12 Rs/kg in the market. The vermicompost online price for 1 kg bag shows Rs. 150, but the wholesale market has low prices.